Article 23

23.2 Application


In recent years a coral reef ecosystem shared between the coastal states B and C has become severely degraded. It is difficult to pinpoint one factor that has led to the degradation of the coral reef, but likely causal factors include excessive sediment, nutrient, toxins, and pathogen loads. State A, a land-locked country, is heavily reliant on agricultural practices. State A has also in recent years exploited its forests for additional income. As well as its contribution to pollution loads, these upstream activities have resulted in high levels of sedimentation – which is acknowledged as one of the primary causes of coral reef ecosystem degradation. While states B and C are parties to an agreement that seeks to protect the coral reef ecosystem, there is no provision for allowing additional states to become party to the agreement. States B and C therefore amend the agreement to allow in-land states to become party to it, where the activities of those states impact on the status of the coral reef. State A then become a party to the wider agreement and its activities are aligned with that of Article 23 of the UN Watercourses Convention.

Regional Sea Conventions Addressing Land-based Pollution

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No Significant Harm Rule

Protection and Preservation of Ecosystems

 

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