|The choice of the expression ‘implements or permits the implementation,’ clarifies that Article 12 covers both measures planned by the state and by private entities.267 ‘Permit’ has to be defined rather broadly – encompassing allowances and authorisations. Hence, when a private entity is planning a measure, the watercourse state where the measure is to be carried out is under an obligation to withhold authorisation before notifying its co-riparians.268 The same interpretation has to be applied in subsequent articles regarding the ‘implementation’ of planned measures.269
267 1994 Draft Articles, Art 12 at 111, para 3.
269 See Art 15(2); Art 16(1); and Art 19(1).
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Notification Process for Planned Measures